Environment Documents

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Report on Reindeer Management Methodology

Following a wide consultation, the Government of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands took the decision in early 2011 to responsibly and humanely eradicate reindeer from South Georgia. Following this decision, an expert advisory group was established to inform the most appropriate way to achieve the eradication, with reference to best practice guidelines around the world.


Download 'Report on the outputs of the Advisory Group on Reindeer Management Methodology]' here.




South Georgia Biodiversity Reports

  • 'Intertidal and Subtidal Benthic Seaweed Diversity of South Georgia'
  • 'Intertidal Assemblages of South Georgia'


Download from here




Important Bird Areas in the UK Overseas Territories

Taken from the 2006 book 'Important Bird Areas in the United Kingdom Overseas Territories' (ed S.M. Sanders), the section 'South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands' pp. 211-226 by Sally Poncet can be downloaded here [pdf, 0.291mb].




Invasive Species Monitoring of South Georgia

Download Invasive Species Monitoring of South Georgia: Progress report for JNCC, November 2010 [pdf, 1.4mb].




Albatross and Prion Islands Monitoring Programme 2010 Report

2010 was the 12th year of the annual seabird and habitat monitoring programme on Albatross and Prion Islands. The research is managed by South Georgia Surveys (SGS), a Falkland Islands-based research group. Collaboration with the South Georgia Government (GSGSSI) began in 2008 and is due for review at the end of 2010. Funding for the programme is currently provided by the Government of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, with additional funds from the “Protect Our Poles” Fund (administered by the Calgary Zoological Society) and The Antarctic Research Trust.


Download SGS Albatross and Prion Islands Monitoring Programme 2010 Annual Report [pdf, 0.5mb].




Distribution and Abundance Survey of Seabirds and Seals

Download 1997 Distribution and Abundance of Surveys of Seabirds and Seals at the South Sandwich Islands in the Scotia Sea [pdf, 15.1mb].




Subtidal and Intertidal Benthic Survey of the North Coast

The marine habitats of South Georgia are potentially of the most interesting in the region, yet at present they are of the most poorly understood. Past studies show that the shelf area of South Georgia has similar or greater species richness in some major groups (eg bryozoans, sponges, nematodes, chelicerates) compared to other regions globally that have much larger shelf areas and that have been more intensively sampled. Furthermore, South Georgia is geologically old and geographically remote, therefore theoretically, it may be high in endemics, and there is some evidence to support this. Given the increasing fishing and tourism activity on South Georgia, it is important to understand the region’s habitat characteristics and biodiversity for impact monitoring purposes. In addition, the region has been shown to be one of the most likely globally to be highly impacted by climate change in terms of shifting or loss of biodiversity and potential for invasive species colonisation.


Download Expedition Report: Subtidal and Intertidal Benthic Surevey of the North Coast of South Georgia, November 2010 [pdf, 1.0mb].




SGSSI ACAP Plan

The Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP) is a recently established (2004) multi-national treaty which seeks to maintain a favourable conservation status for albatross and petrels. This document (the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands ACAP Plan) summarises the current status of ACAP-related work at South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and provides guidelines for a prioritised programme of future work. It is intended to serve as a tool to guide and coordinate actions that are required to be undertaken in order to meet the obligations of the Agreement.


Download here [pdf, 1.0mb].




South Georgia Reindeer Management

The Government of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands has produced a discussion document that comprises the history of reindeer on South Georgia, a summary of the impacts of reindeer on native species and habitats, and a discussion of management options. This document can be downloaded here (5MB, pdf).




Study into the Reindeer on South Georgia

Following six years of research at Durham University, Fiona Lovatt (nee Hatchell) has completed her PhD with a thesis entitled ‘A study of the impact of population bottlenecks on the genetics and morphology of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) on the island of South Georgia’. More information on her work can be downloaded as a Word document here [doc, 0.03mb].




Mouse ID Sheet

Historically, introduced mice were only thought to reside in one location on South Georgia. However, recent reports indicate that they may in fact be occupying further sites on the island. It is extremely important for the Government to know where the mice are, so that their impact can be managed to the best of our ability.


GSGSSI would be extremely grateful for the assistance of visitors in reporting potential sightings. To assist, the linked Mouse ID sheet has been produced in order to differentiate between rat and mouse sign, and to ensure appropriate information is collected. If you could download and use the form for any identification and sightings, and return using the contact detail on the sheet, you will be making a valuable contribution to the management of the island. Thank you. Darren Christie, Environment Officer GSGSSI. Feb 2010.


Download the sheet here. [pdf, 1.2mb]




Seabirds Assessment for Fisheries Operations

The FAO International Plan of Action - Seabirds Assessment for fisheries operating in South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands has been prepared by Birdlife International. It can be downloaded as a pdf here [pdf, 2.5mb].














Invasive Species Monitoring of South Georgia

Download Invasive Species Monitoring of South Georgia: Progress report for JNCC, November 2010 [pdf, 1.4mb].




Albatross and Prion Islands Monitoring Programme 2010 Report

2010 was the 12th year of the annual seabird and habitat monitoring programme on Albatross and Prion Islands. The research is managed by South Georgia Surveys (SGS), a Falkland Islands-based research group. Collaboration with the South Georgia Government (GSGSSI) began in 2008 and is due for review at the end of 2010. Funding for the programme is currently provided by the Government of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, with additional funds from the “Protect Our Poles” Fund (administered by the Calgary Zoological Society) and The Antarctic Research Trust.


Download SGS Albatross and Prion Islands Monitoring Programme 2010 Annual Report [pdf, 0.5mb].




Distribution and Abundance Survey of Seabirds and Seals

Download 1997 Distribution and Abundance of Surveys of Seabirds and Seals at the South Sandwich Islands in the Scotia Sea [pdf, 15.1mb].




Subtidal and Intertidal Benthic Survey of the North Coast

The marine habitats of South Georgia are potentially of the most interesting in the region, yet at present they are of the most poorly understood. Past studies show that the shelf area of South Georgia has similar or greater species richness in some major groups (eg bryozoans, sponges, nematodes, chelicerates) compared to other regions globally that have much larger shelf areas and that have been more intensively sampled. Furthermore, South Georgia is geologically old and geographically remote, therefore theoretically, it may be high in endemics, and there is some evidence to support this. Given the increasing fishing and tourism activity on South Georgia, it is important to understand the region’s habitat characteristics and biodiversity for impact monitoring purposes. In addition, the region has been shown to be one of the most likely globally to be highly impacted by climate change in terms of shifting or loss of biodiversity and potential for invasive species colonisation.


Download Expedition Report: Subtidal and Intertidal Benthic Surevey of the North Coast of South Georgia, November 2010 [pdf, 1.0mb].




SGSSI ACAP Plan

The Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP) is a recently established (2004) multi-national treaty which seeks to maintain a favourable conservation status for albatross and petrels. This document (the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands ACAP Plan) summarises the current status of ACAP-related work at South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and provides guidelines for a prioritised programme of future work. It is intended to serve as a tool to guide and coordinate actions that are required to be undertaken in order to meet the obligations of the Agreement.


Download here [pdf, 1.0mb].




South Georgia Reindeer Management

The Government of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands has produced a discussion document that comprises the history of reindeer on South Georgia, a summary of the impacts of reindeer on native species and habitats, and a discussion of management options. This document can be downloaded here (5MB, pdf).




Study into the Reindeer on South Georgia

Following six years of research at Durham University, Fiona Lovatt (nee Hatchell) has completed her PhD with a thesis entitled ‘A study of the impact of population bottlenecks on the genetics and morphology of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) on the island of South Georgia’. More information on her work can be downloaded as a Word document here [doc, 0.03mb].




Mouse ID Sheet

Historically, introduced mice were only thought to reside in one location on South Georgia. However, recent reports indicate that they may in fact be occupying further sites on the island. It is extremely important for the Government to know where the mice are, so that their impact can be managed to the best of our ability.


GSGSSI would be extremely grateful for the assistance of visitors in reporting potential sightings. To assist, the linked Mouse ID sheet has been produced in order to differentiate between rat and mouse sign, and to ensure appropriate information is collected. If you could download and use the form for any identification and sightings, and return using the contact detail on the sheet, you will be making a valuable contribution to the management of the island. Thank you. Darren Christie, Environment Officer GSGSSI. Feb 2010.


Download the sheet here. [pdf, 1.2mb]




Seabirds Assessment for Fisheries Operations

The FAO International Plan of Action - Seabirds Assessment for fisheries operating in South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands has been prepared by Birdlife International. It can be downloaded as a pdf here [pdf, 2.5mb].













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